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**Basic FEA**

**Basic FEA**

Six-Session Live Online Training Course - 2.5/3 hours per session

PDH Credits - 15*

*Attend the live sessions, or view the recordings at your convenience*

Ideal for design engineers wanting to learn more about the basics of FEA

*New to FEA and concerned about how to use it in the real world?*

*New to FEA and concerned about how to use it in the real world?*

*This course gives you practical advice with a minimum of theory.*

*This course gives you practical advice with a minimum of theory.*

The course offers excellent guidance on how to assess and plan the task of carrying out structural analysis using FEA.

Finite Element Analysis is a powerful, widely used and universally accepted technique. However, for those new to FEA there is a steep learning curve to overcome, with a bewildering array of:

- element types
- solution types
- meshing methods
- loading and constraint methods
- pre-post processing options

This is before we get down to the engineering physics behind the problem, with associated classic traps and errors. What is needed is guidance via a thorough but practical assessment of the method and how to use it in the real world.

Content includes:

- Background to FEA
- Defining your objectives and planning your analysis
- Making healthy models
- Real-world constraints and loading
- Engineering assessment – is your model realistic
- Integrating with CAD and geometry
- Checking the answers – guilty until proven innocent!

*Why an e-learning class?*

*Why an e-learning class?*

Travel and training budgets are always tight! The e-Learning course has been developed to help you meet your training needs.

If your company has a group of engineers, or specific training requirements across any subjects, please contact us to discuss options.

## Course Program

### Session 1

- History and background
- FEA Process
- Element Stiffness Matrices
- Avoiding Free Motion
- Spreadsheet Bar Solver
- Degrees of Freedom
- Homework

### Session 2

- Homework review
- Displacement shape functions
- Element Types
- A sanity check on FEA
- A simple case study
- Beam structure example
- Homework

### Session 3

- Homework review
- Controlling DOF
- Special elements and methods
- Element stress inaccuracies
- Convergence checking
- Homework

### Session 4

- Homework Review
- Local Stress Raisers
- Real World Boundary Conditions
- Real World Loading
- Summary of FEA Model Checks
- Checks prior to analysis
- Pre Processor and Meshing Checks
- Auxiliary Analysis Checks
- Solver Checks
- Post Processor Checks
- Reporting
- Homework

### Session 5

- Making Life Simpler
- Cylinder Example
- Understanding the Objective of an FEA analysis
- Looking Critically at CAD Geometry
- Why Not Use 20 Million Elements
- Homework

### Session 6

- Free Body Diagrams
- Types of stresses
- Assessing Stresses
- Checking Results
- Load Paths
- Other Solution Types
- Conclusions
- Homework

**Feedback from former e-Learning students:**

"This course did everything right. From organization to presentation to interaction, this is a good model for what online training should be."

B.T.

"Tony's command over the subject and excellent teaching skills made this course worthwhile."G.K.

"Super! Doesn't get better than this. Good idea to start having e-Learning courses."R.P.

"I'm really happy not to pay a big fraction of my annual training budget to airlines and hotels. A BIG plus to e-learning."V.G.

## PSE Competencies addressed by this training course

ID |
Competence Statement |

FEAkn1 | List the various steps in the analysis/simulation process. |

FEAkn2 | Define the meaning of degree of freedom. |

FEAkn3 | List the nodal degrees of freedom and the associated force actions for common beam, 2D solid, 2D axisymmetric, 3D solid and shell elements, for the Displacement FEM. |

FEAkn4 | Define the meaning of adaptive mesh refinement |

FEAkn7 | Name other finite element methods. |

FEAkn8 | List the requirements for an axisymmetric analysis to be valid. |

FEAkn9 | List the degrees of freedom to be constrained on a symmetric boundary. |

FEAkn11 | Sketch problems showing the various form of symmetry. |

FEAkn12 | List the advantages of using symmetry. |

FEAkn14 | List the possible advantages of applying material properties, loads and boundary conditions to underlying geometry rather than to finite element entities. |

FEAkn15 | List 2 common solvers for large sets of simultaneous equations. |

FEAkn16 | List the various forms of element distortion. |

FEAkn17 | List the various element types commonly used in the analysis of components within your organisation. |

FEAco1 | Describe the sources of error inherent in finite element analysis, in general terms. |

FEAco2 | Discuss checks that may be used post-solution to check for the presence of inaccuracy. |

FEAco3 | Explain the term solution residual. |

FEAco4 | Explain the meaning of convergence, including h and p types. |

FEAco5 | Discuss the difficulties that can arise in using a CAD model as the basis for carrying out analysis and simulation. |

FEAco6 | Discuss the need for a consistent set of units in any analysis and illustrate possible pitfalls. |

FEAco7 | Explain why strains and stresses are generally less accurate than displacements for any given mesh of elements, using the Displacement FEM. |

FEAco8 | Discuss the validity of using symmetry techniques to model non-symmetric problems. |

FEAco9 | Explain the meaning of the term ill-conditioned when used in the context of a set of solution equations and illustrate physical situations where this might reflect reality. |

FEAco11 | Discuss the finite element / spring analogy. |

FEAco13 | Explain how the structural stiffness matrix is assembled from the individual element matrices. |

FEAco14 | Discuss the nature of the structural stiffness matrix. |

FEAco16 | Discuss the salient features of the integral equation for Consistent Nodal Loading. |

FEAco17 | Explain the process of Gaussian Quadrature and the terms Reduced Integration, Shear Locking and Mechanisms. |

FEAco19 | Discuss the general requirements for suitable Displacement Functions. |

FEAco20 | Discuss the terms C0 and C1 Continuity. |

FEAco23 | Explain the Equilibrium and Compatibility conditions, normally found within and between displacement elements. |

FEAco28 | Explain why element distortion generally results in poorer results. |

FEAco32 | Explain the concept of substructuring, where applicable and highlight common limitations of use. |

FEAco33 | Describe the process of nested or submodelling. |

FEAco36 | Discuss how developments in computing power and system functionality are affecting modelling strategies, highlighting techniques that are falling into disuse. |

FEAco37 | Discuss modelling issues related to wind, sea, and other relevant forms of stochastic loading. |

FEAco40 | Explain the rationale behind the use of 1-D, 2-D and 3-D elements used in the analysis of components within your organisation. |

FEAap1 | Employ an analysis system for the determination of stresses and strains in small displacement, linear elastic problems. |

FEAap4 | Illustrate the various steps in the Displacement Finite Element Method from assumed displacement polynomial to determination of stresses. |

FEAap9 | Employ cyclic symmetric boundary conditions effectively, where appropriate. |

FEAap11 | Illustrate consistent nodal loadings for uniform loading on a range of common linear and quadratic shell, 2D and 3D solid elements and note any unusual features. |

FEAap12 | Employ a range of post-solution checks to determine the integrity of FEA results. |

FEAap13 | Conduct validation studies in support of FEA. |

FEAap14 | Carry out sensitivity studies. |

FEAan1 | Analyse the results from small displacement, linear static analyses and determine whether they satisfy inherent assumptions. |

FEAan2 | Compare the results from small displacement, linear elastic analyses with allowable values and comment on findings. |

FEAan3 | Analyse the results from sensitivity studies and draw conclusions from trends. |

FEAsy1 | Prepare an analysis specification, including modelling strategy, highlighting any assumptions relating to geometry, loads, boundary conditions and material properties. |

FEAsy2 | Develop an analysis strategy that enables the relative significance of individual model parameters and their interactions to be evaluated. |

FEAsy3 | Plan an analysis, specifying necessary resources and timescale. |

FEAsy4 | Prepare quality assurance procedures for finite element analysis activities within an organisation. |

FEAsy8 | Prepare a validation plan in support of a FEA study. |

FEAev2 | Assess the significance of neglecting any feature or detail in any idealisation. |

FEAev3 | Assess the significance of simplifying geometry, material models, loads or boundary conditions. |

FEAev5 | Manage verification and validation procedures in support of FEA. |

MESMkn6 | Sketch the graph of force versus deflection for a linear elastic spring and identify the potential energy and the complementary energy. |

MESMkn9 | Sketch a general 3D stress element showing all stress components. |

MESMkn10 | Sketch Mohr Circle for a simple tensile test specimen, illustrating the plane of maximum shear. |

MESMkn11 | Define Hooke's Law. |

MESMkn12 | Define Poisson's Ratio. |

MESMkn13 | Define the relationship between Young's Modulus, Poisson's Ratio and Shear Modulus. |

MESMkn14 | Sketch the through-thickness shear stress distribution in a rectangular beam subjected to a shearing load. |

MESMkn15 | List the equations for the hoop and longitudinal stresses in an internally pressurised thin sphere and a thin cylinder with remote end closures. |

MESMkn16 | Sketch the contact normal stress distribution for a circular pin in lug with a circular hole. |

MESMkn17 | List the section properties for a range of common shapes, including hollow circular. |

MESMkn18 | List various Failure Hypotheses / Criteria. |

MESMkn19 | State an appropriate failure criteria for brittle materials. |

MESMkn20 | Define Tresca and von Mises Stress for a 3D stress state. |

MESMkn21 | State the elastic Constitutive Relations in 2D, for a homogeneous, isotropic material. |

MESMco1 | Discuss the term Rigid Body and explain its significance in relation to any analysis. |

MESMco2 | Explain the terms Uniaxial, Biaxial and Triaxial Stress. |

MESMco3 | Explain the significance of the terms Equilibrium, Compatibility and Constitutive Relations. |

MESMco4 | Discuss the terms True Stress and Natural Strain. |

MESMco5 | Describe the stress distribution around a hole in an infinite plate subjected to uniaxial tension. |

MESMco6 | Sketch deformed shapes, shear force, bending moment and torque diagrams, for simple structures. |

MESMco9 | Discuss the uncertainties typically present in analyses and explain how these are handled. |

MESMco10 | Explain the term Statically Indeterminate and illustrate with a few examples. |

MESMco11 | Explain the significance of the assumption plane sections remain plane in relation to beam bending. |

MESMco12 | Explain when deflection due to shear starts to become significant with beams, plates and shells. |

MESMco14 | Provide examples of Plane Stress and Plane Strain. |

MESMco15 | Explain the Tresca and von Mises Failure Criteria in 2D, sketching the failure surface. |

MESMco16 | Discuss the stress states that give rise to maximum differences between the Tresca and von Mises criteria. |

MESMco17 | Discuss the Principle of Superposition and its limitations. |

MESMco18 | Explain how St. Venant's Principle may be of use in FEA. |

MESMco19 | Explain how the interaction of stress concentrations may be handled. |

MESMap1 | Employ Free Body Diagrams effectively. |

MESMap2 | Use tables to retrieve stress concentration data for common configurations. |

MESMap8 | Evaluate deformed shapes, shear force, bending moment and torque diagrams for simple structures. |

MESMan1 | Use tabulated formulae or first principles to determine deflections and stresses for simple, beam, plate and shell problems, as a check on values from FEA. |

MESMsy1 | Plan analysis strategies. |

BMPSkn2 | Sketch typical beam, membrane, plate and shell elements showing degrees of freedom and corresponding force actions. |

BMPSco1 | Describe the basic differences between a membrane, a plate and a shell. |

BMPSco2 | Explain the term and significance of a drilling degree of freedom for a shell element (rotational freedom normal to the shell surface). |

BMPSco3 | Discuss, in general terms, the assumptions inherent in beam, plate or shell theory forming the basis of any element being used. |

BMPSco9 | Discuss the significance of a facetted representation of a curved shell, where relevant and explain why use of this type of element is no longer necessary. |

BMPSco14 | Describe any inherent dangers in using a membrane or a plate idealisation rather than a shell one. |

BMPSco15 | Discuss the use of beam and shell elements to model stiffeners and highlight limitations. |

BMPSco22 | Describe the terms Neutral Axis and Centroidal Axis in relation to beam elements. |

BMPSco23 | Describe the terms Shear Centre, Shear Coefficients, Torsional Constant and Warping in relation to beam elements. |

BMPSco25 | Explain why the through-thickness stress is commonly neglected in thin shells. |

BMPSco26 | Describe the boundary conditions appropriate to fully-fixed and simply supported beams and shells and explain the link to bending stress. |

BMPSco29 | Discuss the effect of an offset in shell mid-surface on local and global result quantities. |

BMPSco31 | Explain the challenges in connecting beam and shell elements to solids. |

BMPSap3 | Determine positive plate/shell normal directions and use this effectively in the application of pressure and the correct display of surface stress plots. |

BMPSap4 | Use beam elements effectively for appropriate idealisations of components and structures. |

BMPSap5 | Use membrane elements effectively for appropriate idealisations of components and structures. |

BMPSap6 | Use plate elements effectively for appropriate idealisations of components and structures. |

BMPSap7 | Use shell elements effectively for appropriate idealisations of components and structures. |

BMPSan1 | Analyse requirements for finite element models of industrial components using beam, membrane, plate and shell elements and determine whether the basic assumptions inherent in the element formulations are valid. |

BMPSsy1 | Plan modelling strategies for stiffened plate/shell structures. |

BMPSev1 | Justify the appropriateness of a beam, membrane, plate or shell idealisation for any analysis. |

MASco1 | Describe the salient features of a stress strain curve from a uniaxial tensile test on a typical steel and aluminium alloy. |

MASco4 | Describe the characteristics of ductile and brittle failures. |

MASco15 | If relevant to your industry sector, explain how use of a modulus and allowable stress can be used in a small displacement linear elastic analysis of a plastic component. |

MASap1 | Employ material constitutive data appropriately in analysis and simulation. |

SIMMkn17 | SPDM - State applicable simulation process for the relevant project in your organization. |

SIMMkn18 | SPDM - State input data from other disciplines and domains (e.g. design, loads, materials, tests...). |

SIMMkn19 | SPDM - State output of simulation & analysis processes, including design substantiation, test requirements... |

SIMMkn20 | SPDM - State the different phases and control actions of an efficient simulation and analysis process |

SIMMkn26 | SPDM - Identify model/simulation data to be managed. |

SIMMkn27 | SPDM - List the import and eIntro to FEAport formats available in your application software. |

SIMMco27 | SPDM- Understand the process to import and select loads for the relevant project(*). |

SIMMco28 | SPDM- Understand loads selection and combination rules applicable to the relevant project(*). |

SIMMco29 | SPDM- Understand different load characteristics and variability(*). |

SIMMco36 | SPDM - Understand successive phases of the applicable simulation process including preparatory phase, modelling and simulation phase, validation and assessment phase. |

SIMMco47 | SPDM - Describe the limitations of the import and export formats available in your application software. |

SIMMap14 | SPDM - Use applicable capability to eIntro to FEAtract/import applicable material data for simulation(*). |

SIMMap15 | SPDM - Use applicable capability to import applicable loads and environmental data(*). |

SIMMan16 | SPDM - Analyze the impact of input data changes ( e.g.loads..) in support of a decision to launch a new simulation loop. |

SIMMan17 | SPDM - Analyze the impact of material changes in support of a decision to launch a new simulation loop(*). |

SIMMco7 - V&V | Explain the term solution verification. |

SIMMap4 - V&V | Perform basic model checks |

SIMMap6 - V&V | Perform test /analysis correlation studies |

SIMMan6 - V&V | Analyze simulation results to support validation activities. |

SIMMsy7 - V&V | Prepare a validation plan in support of a FEA study. |

SIMMkn9 | List the various CAD, and CAE systems your company uses and has a need to transfer data to/from. |

SIMMkn10 | State whether the CAD CAE interfaces amongst your analysis and simulations applications are uni directional or bi directional |

SIMMco15 | Understand fundamentals of the mechanical design process |

SIMMco16 | Explain how a CAD model can support different CAE models. |

SIMMco18 | Understand procedures to extract and import applicable CAD geometrical data, and/or drawings for the relevant analysis. |

SIMMco20 | Understand the tracking of changes in CAD and simulation models |

SIMMco23 | Review the functionality of STEP in relation to your analysis and simulation needs. |

SIMMco25 | Review whether features are retained across the import and export filters available in your application software. |

SIMMap8 | Apply any model clean up facilities available in your application software, for use on imported data. |

SIMMap9 | Use facilities in your application software to solidify imported geometry where necessary. |

SIMMap10 | Use your application software to extract mid surfaces from solid geometry |

SIMMap11 | Employ any feature-recognition facilities on imported geometry, to allow suppression or modification. |

SIMMap12 | Apply appropriate tolerances and other settings when importing and exporting model data. |

SIMMan8 | Appraise whether any geometrical entities have been approximated on importation into your analysis and simulation systems. |

SIMMan18 | Analyze the impact of design changes in support of a decision to launch a new simulation loop. |

SIMMan19 | Assess the justification of design changes coming from simulation results. |

# Upcoming Session:

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**Course Tutor**

Read Tony's bio on the NAFEMS tutors page

*All sessions are recorded and made available to attendees following the end of the live class. It is perfectly acceptable to attend this class using recordings only.*

*The course is completely code independent, so is applicable to all FEA users*

*The course is completely code independent, so is applicable to all FEA users*

A full set of PDF notes is available for download. Each session is presented live and is available for review via a streamable recording.

Reading lists, homework submissions, supplementary data are all available for download via the special on-line forum. Interaction via the bulletin board is strongly encouraged to obtain the most from the e-learning class. Typically, the board runs for 4 weeks after the last live class sessions, giving you plenty of time to catch up with homework, review and ask questions.

**Note**: homework participation is purely voluntary!

**Special Note(s):**

Telephony surcharges __may__ apply for attendees who are located __outside__ of North America, South America and Europe. These surcharges are related to individuals who join the audio portion of the web-meeting by calling in to the provided toll/toll-free teleconferencing lines. We have made a VoIP option available so anyone attending the class can join using a headset (headphones w/ microphone) connected to the computer. There is no associated surcharge to utilize the VoIP option, and is actually encouraged to ensure NAFEMS is able to keep the e-Learning course fees as low as possible. Please send an email to the e-Learning coordinator (**e-learning @ nafems.org** ) to determine if these surcharges may apply to your specific case.

Just as with a live face-to-face training course, each registration only covers one person. If you plan to register a large group (10+), please send an email to **e-learning @ nafems.org** in advance for group discounts.

For NAFEMS cancellation and transfer policy, click here.