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Introduction to CFD

Gain an introduction to computational fluid dynamics with this selection of NAFEMS books. 
The ‘How To’ publications outline CFD theory and the latest edition of the ‘International Journal of CFD Case Studies’ provides up-to-date examples of the technology.

The collection contains:

  • How to Get Started with Computational Fluid Dynamics
  • How to Ensure that CFD for Industrial Applications is Fit for Purpose
  • International Journal of CFD Case Studies Vol. 10

How to Get Started with Computational Fluid Dynamics
(Ref: HT23)


C. T. Shaw
First Published - March 2002
Softback, 35 Pages

This booklet reviews how CFD simulations are run and the requirements needed to do this in terms of software, hardware and suitably skilled people.  It has been written to guide those who make commercial decisions about the use of CFD technology and so it is aimed mainly at the industrial user. However, it also has relevance for other users, such as academics seeking to start work in this field.

It discusses the steps that are needed to develop a CFD analysis capability including assessing the need for CFD, obtaining suitable hardware and software, finding and training staff, validating test cases and establishing CFD procedures.

It is hoped that the reader might avoid the common pitfalls that occur when getting started with CFD and will be confident in establishing a CFD capability tuned to their organisation’s requirements.

How to Ensure that CFD for Industrial Applications is Fit for Purpose


C. J. Lea
First Published - July 2010
Softback, 92 Pages

This book examines the issues which should be considered when making decisions on the allocation of resources. It aims to show how to maximise the usefulness of CFD simulation by making optimum use of resources.It provides examples and guidance on how to undertake CFD which is fit for purpose.

It is often the case that idealisation and thus simplification of the flow problem and CFD modelling approach is the key to ensuring that simulations fulfil project requirements. Therefore, a major focus of this book is on the areas in which idealisation and simplification can be fruitful.

The scope of the book is primarily the application of CFD to complex industrial flows. However, there is often no clearly defined boundary between industrial and other flows. For example, although the prime aim of a simulation may be to ensure that drug delivery to the lungs is effective – and this is clearly a biomedical flow - this may, in turn, require the modelling and optimisation of the design of a spray inhaler. In addition, examination of the treatment of complex flows in other application areas can lead to a useful cross-fertilisation of ideas. With this in mind, the book also draws on examples from application areas such as fire safety in the built environment, of resources marine hydrodynamics, as well as biomedical flows. Furthermore, although the book focuses on complex CFD applications, the principles and practice of CFD which is ‘fit for purpose’ are applicable to all CFD simulations – whether complex or otherwise.

The book is written for the relatively new CFD user who is faced with a range of industrial applications of significant complexity, rather than experienced users with considerable CFD knowledge in their particular application areas. In fact, this book seeks to close the gap between the relative newcomer and the expert user. It shows how to make thof resources, by outlining the principles and practice of idealisation and simplification.

The book is of most relevance to the users of general-purpose and application specific CFD software that provides a wide range of options when meshing, in selecting physical and numerical sub-models and boundary conditions, in obtaining and interpreting flow solutions. Nevertheless, users of all manner of CFD tools should find some benefit from this book. In general, the book focuses on turbulent industrial flows in which the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved. Mention is made of more advanced approaches to the simulation of turbulence, namely Large Eddy Simulation, but details of this approach are beyond the scope of the present volume.

International Journal of CFD Case Studies Vol. 10
(Ref: CFDJ10)


Editor- A. Green
Published - June 2013
Softback, 71 Pages

The papers in this 10th volume of the Journal offer a wide range of CFD application topics each presenting comparisons with experiment as validation.

The papers in this 10th volume of the Journal offer a wide range of CFD application topics each presenting comparisons with experiment as validation.

Technical textile fabrics have many uses, one such use, is in the paper making industry. In the paper by Farber et al water needs to flow through a textile with specific properties, requiring much trial testing of the fabric structure. A technique of “weaving” single cylindrical filaments together is used to create a small sample of a commercial fabric. The sample is used to simulate an experimental set up where water flows through the fabric and velocities are compared to Magnetic Resonance Imaging results.

Friction stir welding of metals is a new technology with equipment design largely relying on empirical data from welding performance tests. The process is highly non-linear comprising complex heat transfer, metal plastic deformation and flow. Simulating the welding tool at the plunge, dwell and traverse stages allows a better understanding of the process and parameters. The paper by Mackenzie et alcalculates transient temperature distributions and metal flow visualizations in the welding process.

Lifeboats launched from ships and offshore platforms must avoid overloading the occupants and vessel hull. A computational method using overlapping grids, to simplify the handling of lifeboat motion and specification of initial and boundary conditions, is used in the paper by Mørch et al to calculate vessel accelerations and pressures. The achieved accuracy in numerical simulations is comparable to the accuracy of experiments and provides a new design evaluation method.

Sanding systems are used to prevent a tram skidding on the rails, keeping sand used to a minimum.Simulating a sand-air mixture requires modelling the behaviour of the sand particles on the surface of the rails. A stochastic sub-model described in the paper by Möller et al, tuned using in-house experiment results, led to an improved design of the sanding device and sand jet which were later tested.

Water is inevitable in aircraft fuel tanks and aircraft movements create waves or “slosh” the fuel and water interface. Removing the water requires the positioning of scavenge pick-up locations to be optimised. The paper by Hylands et al uses CFD to simulate the dynamic motion of two liquids in a rectangular tank and compared to flow visualisation and pressure data results from a sloshing test rig.

Three of the papers mention the desire to make CFD the preferred method of analysis, the experimental approach is variously described as laborious, time-consuming, costly and requiring many optimisation tests. This is an old debate – “CFD replaces the wind tunnel” was mooted thirty years ago and we are still waiting! Most CFD practitioners realise that both are currently required for real engineering design - the challenge is to understand where each technique may augment the other. 

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