general - elasticity is the theory of material response in which stress is a single valued function of strain which is independent of the loading history. For such materials, a potential for stress in terms of strain is defined in the form of a strain energy function. Linear elasticity is a special form where the stress is a linear function of strain, otherwise there exists non-linear elasticity .
set of general benchmarks - well-defined benchmark tests covering a variety of elastic problems.
beams - structures thin in two of its three dimensions but whose displacements, rotations, etc., can be in any direction.
plates - flat thin structures whose displacements, rotations, etc., are restricted to describe movements which are essentially normal to the flat plane.
shells - thin structures which can be flat or curved and whose displacements can be in any direction.
composites - materials deliberately made up from mixtures of basic materials in order to improve operational performance. The properties are usually directionally dependent.
hierarchical elements - element families with varying shape function orders such that the stiffness matrix of each order contains the stiffness matrices of each of the lower ordered elements as sub-matrices.
Text P13 .
element performance and shape sensitivity - the detailed study of how particular elements behave, in terms of both refinement convergence and errors due to badly-shaped individual elements.