Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is widely used across many branches of engineering including the Aerospace, Automotive, Biomedical, Chemical, Marine, Oil, Gas, Petrochemical and Power Generation industries.
One dimensional (1D) CFD allows engineers to understand the flow rates and pressures, and how they might change, within a network flow system of interconnected components such as pipes, valves, junctions, pumps, controllers, fans and compressors – particularly as the operating state of the components changes, for example, as pumps speed up or valves close.
In contrast, three dimensional (3D) CFD brings significant benefits to design engineers in understanding how detailed flows interact with all manner of complex plant and machinery and affect heat transfer and fluid flow, either increasing or decreasing drag (pressure drop).
By comparison, ‘system’ or 1D CFD calculations are typically much faster. When compared to 3D CFD calculations (which may take hours) they may take only minutes to perform. 1D CFD simulation calculations are relatively quick and provide a system overview. In place of a detailed geometry and mesh, a comprehensive database of empirical and semi-empirical models, allows the analyst or designer to understand how a fluid system behaves – but without the detailed understanding of local behaviour that may come from a detailed 3D CFD model.
Co-simulation of a 1D with a 3D model potentially offers the best of both worlds. It enables the sharing of boundary data between 1D and 3D models in a single or multi-domain system to facilitate the simulation the overall fluid system coupled with more detailed CFD simulation of 3D flows within a critical part of the network.
The Application of Two-Way 3D to 1D Coupling within Aircraft Systems
Darren Morrison, Airbus UK
1D-3D coupling with STAR-CCM+
Sreenadh Jonnavithula, CD-Adapco
Buoyancy Driven Flow in a Complex Ventilation System
David Burt, MMI