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Finite Element Procedures For The Numerical Analysis Of Steel And Aluminium Structures

Simulation Driven Design - NAFEMS Recognised Training Course

Finite Element Procedures For The Numerical Analysis Of Steel And Aluminium Structures



Finite Element Procedures For The Numerical Analysis Of Steel And Aluminium Structures

Provider:MZA Research - Numerical Consulting Ltd
Duration:21 Hours (3 days)
Date of Recognition:October 2022
Delivery Method:In Person Classroom

London, UK

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T​his module is intended to be an intensive 3-day numerical application course aimed at providing the correct sequential procedure to obtain a steel/aluminium structure FE model that is compatible, from a design perspective, with dynamic analyses, under geometric, material and boundary non-linear conditions. The numerical examples presented in the course cover the use of beam, plate and brick elements with most of the examples are taken from real experiences.


T​he course is suitable for structural engineers mainly in the field of Steel and Aluminium Structures who are interested in learning or optimising their approach to ensure that they have a proper and analytical correct model-assembly-procedure, model debugging approach and a verification-validation understanding of the mechanical problem. Participants should have a reasonable-experienced background in Finite Element Methods and Structural Mechanics. Methods and debugging technics will be outlined with only few mathematical references and are illustrated by practical software implementations.


T​he course/training programme is not software specific, but it will be held by making use of the Strand7® Nonlinear FE package and the new 3D Experience system Simulia/Abaqus (by Dassault Systèmes). For all participants, an educational licence will be provided upon request.

PSE Competencies addressed by this training course

FEAkn01List the various steps in the analysis/simulation process
FEAkn02Define the meaning of degree of freedom
FEAkn03List the nodal degrees of freedom and the associated force actions for common beam, 2D solid, 2D
axisymmetric, 3D solid and shell elements, for the Displacement FEM
FEAkn05State the variational principle involved in the formulation of the Displacement Finite Element Method and identify the solution quantity assumed within each element
FEAkn06State the variational principle involved in the formulation of the Equilibrium Finite Element Method
and identify the solution quantity assumed within each element
FEAkn07Name other finite element methods
FEAkn14List the possible advantages of applying material properties, loads and boundary conditions to
underlying geometry rather than to finite element entities
FEAkn15List 2 common solvers for large sets of simultaneous equations
FEAco01Describe the sources of error inherent in finite element analysis, in general terms
FEAco02Discuss checks that may be used post-solution to check for the presence of inaccuracy
FEAco03Explain the term solution residual
FEAco04Explain the meaning of convergence, including h and p types
FEAco05Discuss the difficulties that can arise in using a CAD model as the basis for carrying out analysis and
FEAco06Discuss the need for a consistent set of units in any analysis and illustrate possible pitfalls
FEAco07Explain why strains and stresses are generally less accurate than displacements for any given mesh of
elements, using the Displacement FEM
FEAco09Explain the meaning of the term ill-conditioned when used in the context of a set of solution
equations and illustrate physical situations where this might reflect reality
FEAco13Explain how the structural stiffness matrix is assembled from the individual element matrices
FEAco17Explain the process of Gaussian Quadrature and the terms Reduced Integration, Shear Locking and Mechanisms
FEAco18Explain the term Isoparametric Element
FEAco20Discuss the terms C0 and C1 Continuity
FEAco25Explain the term Bubble Function or Nodeless Variable
FEAco28Explain why element distortion generally results in poorer results
FEAco29Discuss the term Flying Structure or Insufficiently Constrained Structure
FEAco35Discuss the terms Validation and Verification and highlight their importance
FEAco39Discuss the Geometric Stiffness Matrix and highlight situations where it becomes important
FEAap01Employ an analysis system for the determination of stresses and strains in small displacement, linear elastic problems
FEAap04Illustrate the various steps in the Displacement Finite Element Method from assumed displacement
polynomial to determination of stresses
FEAap10Illustrate various physical situations which will result in a Stress Singularity and explain why it is not
appropriate to use finite element results at such locations directly
FEAap12Employ a range of post-solution checks to determine the integrity of FEA results
FEAap13Conduct validation studies in support of FEA
FEAap14Carry out sensitivity studies
FEAan03Analyse the results from sensitivity studies and draw conclusions from trends
FEAsy01Prepare an analysis specification, including modelling strategy, highlighting any assumptions relating
to geometry, loads, boundary conditions and material properties
FEAsy02Develop an analysis strategy that enables the relative significance of individual model parameters and
their interactions to be evaluated
FEAsy04Prepare quality assurance procedures for finite element analysis activities within an organisation
FEAsy06Contribute to the development of a competency process that supports staff technical development
FEAsy08Prepare a validation plan in support of a FEA study
FEAev02Assess the significance of neglecting any feature or detail in any idealisation
FEAev03Assess the significance of simplifying geometry, material models, loads or boundary conditions
SIMMkn06State simulation V&V principles
SIMMco06Explain the terms Verification and Validation
SIMMco07Explain the term solution verification
SIMMco08Explain the term code verification
SIMMap03Conduct validation studies in support of simulation
SIMMap04Perform basic model checks
SIMMsy07Prepare a validation plan in support of a FEA study
NGECkn01Identify the common structural and thermal contact facilities available in a finite element system, eg
friction models and constraint enforcement methods
NGECkn02Identify the algorithms commonly used to follow non-linear equilibrium paths in a finite element
NGECkn04Identify the extent to which your application software allows modification of geometric non-linear
solution parameters and their potential effect on the solution
NGECco01Discuss the terms Geometric Strengthening and Geometric Weakening
NGECco02Explain why the sequence of load application (ie load A followed by B cf. B then A) can give rise to
very different end results and identify examples
NGECco03Explain how large displacement effects can be handled as a series of linear analyses
NGECco04Outline how large displacements, plasticity and instability can affect the failure mode and load of a
NGECco05Discuss the term Load Following
NGECco06Discuss the concept of Mesh Pre-Distortion
NGECco07Contrast the terms Large Displacement and Large Strains
NGECco09Discuss the limitations of contact algorithms available in a finite element system
NGECco10Discuss the theoretical basis of the contact algorithms available in a finite element system
NGECco11Explain the challenges of following a highly non-linear equilibrium path with both load control and displacement control
NGECco12Contrast the Newton-Raphson method with the Riks arc-length method
NGECap02Conduct large displacement analyses
NGECap03Carry out large strain analyses
NGECap04Use an analysis system to carry out contact analyses
NGECap05Conduct analyses with initial pre-loading, eg bolted assemblies or residual fabrication stresses
NGECan01Analyse the results from geometrically nonlinear analyses (including contact) and determine whether
they satisfy inherent assumptions
NGECsy01Plan a series of simple benchmarks in support of a more complex nonlinear analysis
NGECsy02Plan modelling strategies for geometrically nonlinear problems, including contact
NGECev02Select appropriate solution schemes for geometrically non-linear problems
BINkn01Define the term Slenderness Ratio
BINkn02Define the term Radius of Gyration
BINkn03Define the Determinant of a matrix
BINco01Explain the terms Stable Equilibrium, Neutral Equilibrium and Unstable Equilibrium
BINco02Discuss the term Load Proportionality Factor and explain what a negative value indicates
BINco03Explain why theoretical Buckling Loads (including those calculated using FEA) often vary significantly
from test values
BINco04Explain the term Local Buckling and indicate how this can normally be prevented
BINco05Discuss the snap-through buckling of a shallow spherical shell subjected to a lateral load and explain
why a linear buckling analysis is not appropriate
BINco06Discuss the term Post-Buckling Strength and illustrate this with examples
BINco07Explain the term Static Equilibrium as used in structural design codes
BINco08Explain why symmetry should be used with caution in buckling analyses
BINco20Discuss the terms lateral buckling and flexural-torsional buckling, and provide examples of where this
behaviour might arise
BINap01Use tables to evaluate Euler buckling loads for common configurations of columns, plates and shells
BINap02Conduct eigenvalue buckling analyses
BINap03Conduct post-buckling analyses
MESMkn09Sketch a general 3D stress element showing all stress components
MESMkn10Sketch Mohr Circle for a simple tensile test specimen, illustrating the plane of maximum shear
MESMkn11Define Hooke's Law
MESMkn12Define Poisson's Ratio
MESMkn13Define the relationship between Young's Modulus, Poisson's Ratio and Shear Modulus
MESMkn14Sketch the through-thickness shear stress distribution in a rectangular beam subjected to a shearing
MESMkn18List various Failure Hypotheses / Criteria
MESMkn20Define Tresca and von Mises Stress for a 3D stress state
MESMkn21State the elastic Constitutive Relations in 2D, for a homogeneous, isotropic material
MESMco02Explain the terms Uniaxial, Biaxial and Triaxial Stress
MESMco04Discuss the terms True Stress and Natural Strain
PLASkn01For a beam under pure bending sketch the developing stress distribution from first yield, to collapse
PLASkn07Sketch a stress-strain curve for an elastic-perfectly plastic and bi-linear hardening material showing
elastic and plastic modulii
PLASkn09Identify the extent to which your application software allows modification of nonlinear material
solution parameters
PLASco01Discuss salient features of the inelastic response of metals
PLASco02Explain the terms Isotropic Hardening, Kinematic Hardening and Rate Independency
PLASco03Discuss the role of the Hydrostatic and Deviatoric Stress Components in yield criteria for isotropic,
polycrystalline solids
PLASco05Explain the terms First Yield Load, Ultimate Load and Plastic Instability Load
PLASco10Discuss the effects of stress singularities at re-entrant corners on limit load
PLASco13Outline how the cumulative and incremental displacements, total strains, elastic strains, elastic stresses and plastic strains are related in the finite element solution algorithm
PLASco14Illustrate typical examples of Local Plastic Deformation and Gross Plastic Deformation
PLASco15Discuss the term Plastic Hinge
PLASco20Discuss why implementation of the Tresca Criterion can cause numerical problems in an FEA solution and explain how you might get round the problem
PLASco23Describe the Bauschinger Effect
PLASco25Explain why finite element solutions tend to become unstable as the limit load is approached
PLASco27Explain the process of Stress Redistribution
PLASco37Describe why the incompressible nature of plastic deformation can cause difficulties with analysis
PLASap01Define elastic perfectly plastic and bi-linear or multi-linear hardening constitutive data as appropriate
PLASap02Use FEA to determine Limit Loads for a range of components
PLASap03Use FEA to determine Plastic Collapse Loads for a range of components
PLASsy01Specify the use of elastic perfectly plastic and bi-linear or multi-linear hardening constitutive data as
PLASsy04Prepare an analysis specification for a nonlinear material analysis, including modelling strategy,
highlighting any assumptions relating to geometry, loads, boundary conditions and material
PLASco39Describe variations on the Newton-Raphson technique that can be used to find a converged solution
when analysing problems involving plasticity and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of these
PLASco40Explain how and why plastic behaviour involves the appearance of residual stresses in a structure
DVkn10State the typical matrix structure of the discrete differential equation system for linear MDOF
DVkn11Define the terms free and forced vibration
DVkn12State typical values for damping in various engineering structures
DVco01Explain the terms Kinematics and Kinetics
DVco04Explain the term Conservation of Energy and Conversation of Momentum
DVco06Discuss the term Relative Motion
DVco09Explain the term Conservative Forces, Potential, and Strain energy
DVco10Describe the application of Lagrange's Equation to obtain the differential Equation of Motion
DVco11Explain the Principle of Virtual Work
DVco12Explain the use of physical, analytical and mathematical models in a structural dynamics modelling
DVco13Discuss the full discrete linear differential Equation of Motion in matrix terms and explain the terms
Free Response and No Damping
DVco14Explain the derivation of the General Matrix Eigenvalue Problem (characteristic equation) from the
Equation of Motion
DVco15Explain different physical forms of Dynamic Loading (Excitation) in a Force Response analysis
DVco16Explain Harmonic, Periodic, Transient, and Random time response
DVco20Discuss the term Natural Frequency in relation to a continuum and a discretized system
DVco21Discuss the phenomenon of Resonance
DVco22Explain the terms Mode Shape/Eigenvector, Modal Mass, Modal Damping, and Modal Stiffness
DVco25Discuss the characteristics of mass and damping matrices
DVco27Describe the effect of damping on natural frequencies and resonance
DVco28Describe Free Vibration of undamped and damped systems
DVco30Discuss the concept of mass and stiffness proportional (Rayleigh) damping
DVco33Discuss the steady state and total response of a damped system subjected to harmonic excitation
DVco34Describe the terms Intertia force, Damping force and Stiffness force
DVco38Discuss various strategies for extraction of eigenvalues and mode shapes, including Lanczos and
Subspace Iteration
DVco41Discuss the influence of pre-stress on natural frequencies
DVco44Explain the terms Implicit Solution and Explicit Solution for the time integration of the equations of
motion and the appropriate associated problem classes of dynamic analyses
DVco54Discuss various approaches to Seismic Analysis and highlight relevant philosophy and analysis
DVco56Explain the term response spectra
DVap02Use appropriate damping idealisations and/or measured modal damping when necessary
DVap05Employ an analysis system for the determination of natural frequencies and mode shapes
DVap06Employ an analysis system for the determination of steady state response and frequency response
function for a periodic excitation
DVap10Employ an analysis system for the simulation of impact
DVap13Illustrate the approximate nature of finite element analysis, through dynamic examples chosen from
your industry sector